Overview of Citizenship Act, 1955 and amendments made there-under:
Indian Parliament enacted the Citizenship Act, 1955 (57 of 1955) and the Citizenship Rules were framed in 1956. The Citizenship Act, 1955 was amended extensively in 2003. Citizenship is a matter dealt with by Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) in the Government of India (www.mha.gov.in).
As per the Indian Citizenship Act of 1955 (amended in 2003), an individual can obtain Indian citizenship by one or more of the following means:
- Citizenship by birth: Every person born in India on or after 26.1.1950 but before the commencement of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003, where both the parents are citizens of India or one of whose parents is a citizen of India and the other is not an illegal migrant at the time of birth, shall be a citizen of India by birth.
- Citizenship by descent: Every person born outside India shall be a citizen of India by descent if both the parents or either of them is an Indian citizen, not being an illegal migrant, provided his/her birth is registered at an Indian Mission/Post abroad within one year of the birth. After one year period birth, permission of MHA is required.
- Citizenship by registration: MHA may, on an application made in this behalf, register as a citizen of India any person, not being an illegal migrant, if he/she belongs to any categories viz.,
- A person of Indian origin who is resident in India for 7 years, before making the application;
- A person of Indian origin who is ordinarily resident in any country or place outside undivided India.
- A person who is married to an Indian citizen and is ordinarily resident in India for 7 years before making the application
- Minor children of persons who are citizens of India
- A person of full age and capacity whose parents are registered as Indian citizens under clause 5(a) or 6(1) of the Act.
- A person of full age and capacity who, or either of his parents was earlier citizen of independent India, and has been residing in India, for one year immediately before making the application.
- A person of full age and capacity who has been registered as an Overseas Citizen of India for 5 years, and who has been residing in India for two years before making the application.
- Parents holding Indian passports should register birth of their children born in Dubai or any other northern Emirates with the Consulate General of India Dubai within a period of one year of the birth.
- For registration of the birth and obtaining new passport, complete the formalities, including filling up of requisite forms under passport services – registration of birth, issue of BC and passport for a child born in UAE)
- After one year of the birth of the child, the case will have to be referred to Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Indian Citizenship Section, 26, Jaisalmer House, Mansingh Road, New Delhi-110011, in the prescribed application forms for getting approval. Procedure for getting approval in such cases from MHA takes considerable time. It is, therefore, advisable that parents holding Indian passports, register the birth of their children born in UAE with the Consulate within the prescribed period of one year without fail.
- Persons like spouses married to Indian citizens etc, intending to acquire Indian citizenship by registration, who are resident in Dubai and other northern Emirates, are required to apply in the prescribed forms to Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Indian Citizenship Section, 26, Jaisalmer House, Mansingh Road, New Delhi-110011 through the Consulate General of India, Dubai. Prospective applicants are cautioned that procedure for getting approval in such cases from MHA takes considerable time. It is, therefore, advisable that such persons apply well in time with all documents.